He has been the chairman of the Palestine Investment Fund (PIF) since 2009, and is the founding CEO of PalTel. Mustafa has launched a number of start-ups and companies. Besides PalTel, he founded Wataniya Mobile, and Massader for Natural Resources and Infrastructure, as well as investment funds, such as the Rasmala Palestine Equity Fund and the Sharakat Fund for SMEs.
In 2000, he served as an economic reform adviser to Kuwait. Prior to that, he was the lead adviser on privatisation and public-private partnerships for the Public Investment Fund of Saudi Arabia between 1997 and 1998.