Fatah continues to be the dominant force within the PLO and PA, although the emergence of Hamas and its victory in the Palestinian Legislative Council (PLC) elections in 2006 posed a serious challenge to Fatah and the PLO as a whole. The infighting between Fatah and Hamas in 2007 caused deep divisions within Palestinian politics. Although some Palestinians have been organising and operating outside or across these factional lines, politics is still largely determined by them. These factional lines are reflected to varying degrees within the PLO and the PA, in refugee camps, in Jerusalem, and in municipal and union elections. Palestinian citizens of Israel have, meanwhile, be engaging in the Israeli political system since 1949 and have established their own well established forms of local representation.