Experts & Staff

Rafael Loss

Policy Fellow

Areas of expertise

Defence and security policy; military operations; nuclear strategy and arms control


German, English


Rafael Loss is a policy fellow at the European Council on Foreign Relations. His work focuses on security and defence in the Euro-Atlantic area; military operations, innovation, and technology; and nuclear strategy and arms control.

Before joining ECFR, Loss was a research associate at the Center for Global Security Research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California. He is an alumnus of the German Federal Ministry of Defence’s Manfred Wörner Seminar, the NATO Defense College’s Early-Career Nuclear Strategists Workshop, and the Center for Strategic and International Studies’ Nuclear Scholars Initiative.

Loss was a Fulbright fellow at the Fletcher School at Tufts University, where he earned an MA in international relations. He also holds a BA in political science from the University of Bremen.

War and sovereignty: How the EU can enhance its ability to act

The EU has made insufficient progress in enhancing its sovereignty, particularly in security and defence. The union now needs to overcome internal differences to bolster its external ability to act

How Germany can sustain its policy revolution

The revolution in defence funding and energy policy that Germany recently announced should be accompanied by an intellectual awakening



Striking absence: Europe’s missile gap and how to close it

Europeans have been quick to enhance their missile defence capabilities. But to properly address the threat of Russia’s missiles and deter broader conflict, they need to complement defensive systems with offensive ones

Shapes of Multilateralisms Collection

This collection of nine insightful essays illuminates the strategies employed to advance European interests and values within this evolving global polity of overlapping cooperative frameworks

Multilateral space: A European space oddity

Competition among major space powers hinders multilateral action to protect access to outer space. The EU has a key role to play in promoting responsible behaviours and securing the use of space for all




In the media