Violence is tearing Mali and the Sahel apart. But who are the armed groups behind the bloodshed? Where are international actors stationed in the region? And what motivates them all?
The French response to internal threats in North African countries has been to reinforce authoritarian rule to keep the peace. But it could inflame miltancy in the long run, especially in Chad and Libya.
The involvement of Russian private military companies in Africa is rapidly growing, and with it, their political and economic influence
Some European leaders see stabilisation of the region – through curbing migration and counter terror threats – as key to the future of the European project
Mali's presidential election will determine the country's future path either toward stability or a return to violence
Encouraging regional integration could improve economic diversification and economic security in North Africa, while encouraging the regional labour migration that has long helped sustain the Sahel and West Africa
Significant progress on funding and co-ordination, but problematic partnerships with local militias and abuses by security services still hamper prospects for EU’s Sahel strategy