The EU’s tendency to shy away from security issues has helped make covert operations and military threats Russia’s tools of choice in the region
To achieve greater sovereignty, Europe needs to push back against rival powers, build leverage in armed conflicts, and be more effective in supporting reform
Europe should upgrade its security activities, and seize the moment to push multilateral institutions up the agenda. But it will be Europe’s connectivity agenda that provides the golden thread running through its foreign policy and its other objectives in the region.
The Trump years galvanised Europeans’ efforts to strengthen their own sovereignty; they now need to agree concrete offers they can make to the new administration
The reputation of Austria, Denmark, Finland, the Netherlands, and Sweden as ‘frugal states’ does not reflect public sentiment in these countries
The Portuguese EU presidency should handle issues in line with European voters’ perceptions of the new reality created by the coronavirus
The EU should move quickly to consider and adopt a suite of tools to protect and enhance European sovereignty in the geo-economic sphere
European states should now increase conditional engagement with the Houthis, looking to widen political and humanitarian space on the ground
The shock of covid-19 in Britain may end the culture-wars politics set off by the Brexit referendum
The EU cannot continue to rely on its regulatory power but must become a tech superpower in its own right. Referees do not win the game.