The European Foreign Policy Scorecard provides a systematic assessment of Europe’s foreign policy performance, analysing the performance of the 28 member states and the EU institutions on 65 policy areas arranged around six key issue areas: Russia; United States; Wider Europe; Middle East and North Africa; Asia and China; Multilateral issues. See scores below.
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It took some months after Russia’s annexation of Crimea, but in the second half of the year, the EU pulled together around a strong policy of sectoral sanctions against Russia. Combined with falling oil prices, this has diminished Russia’s economic outlook, but Europeans have yet to develop a post-sanctions strategy.
The transatlantic relationship was dominated by the Ukraine crisis, and, especially after the downing of MH17, worked smoothly. EU-US cooperation on the Middle East was less well managed, and follow-up to both the high points (TTIP) and the low points (the Snowden debacle) of 2013 had less traction this year.
The EU signed Association agreements with Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine, but overall, efforts to protect the European choice in the Eastern neighbourhood were insufficient. Faced with backsliding in the Western Balkans, enlargement was frozen, and member states were divided on how to engage with Turkey’s anti-democratic tendencies.
With the important exception of democracy bedding down in Tunisia, instability spread further through the MENA region, with the advance of ISIS, and conflict in Libya, Syria, Yemen, and during the summer, Gaza. Europe struggled to find a strategic response, as GCC states, Iran and Turkey influenced developments.
EU states reached out to other Asian powers, but relations with China, focused on investment, remained their focus in Asia in 2014. China continued to assert itself in its maritime neighbourhood, but EU states limited their response to reiterating the importance of international law, gaining little in return for this neutrality.
The refugee crisis emanating from Syria, the immigration crisis in the Mediterranean, Ebola in West Africa, and conflicts in Central Africa, Mali and against ISIS, showed the limits of austerity time EU- intervention. The Ukraine crisis highlighted flaws in multilateral diplomacy, showing that the rest will not follow the West.
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Navigate the other sections of the document: Authors - Acknowledgements - Foreword - Preface - Introduction - Methodology - Abbreviations
ECFR's European Foreign Policy Scorecard 2015 was funded by Compagnia di San Paolo