The longer that Ankara delays Swedish membership of NATO, the harder it may become to sustain public support and prepare effective Baltic defence
Western states will only maintain their unity and resolve if they address major problems related to their external alliances, EU unity, and people power
The SCO is often seen as the anti-NATO, but Putin will struggle to convince the other members – especially the Central Asian states – that his war is more important than Chinese investment
NATO should deter Russia by establishing a truly permanent presence in front-line states. The EU has a major role to play in this effort.
Mark Leonard is joined by Nick Witney, Jana Puglierin, and Tara Varma, to evaluate the outcomes of the NATO Summit in Madrid, especially regarding European defence
NATO membership would be a historic step for Sweden. But it would also create new challenges in areas such as nuclear planning and missile defence.
The Turkish president is unlikely to veto Nordic membership of NATO – but Turkey’s bigger strategic worry is of a NATO-Russia conflict arising out of the war in Ukraine
Finland has redefined its security interest, leading it inexorably towards NATO membership. If Sweden joins too, a significant new regional grouping within the alliance could emerge.