After Afghanistan, countries such as Germany should reconsider their presence in Mali, unless the ruling class commits to good governance and democratic principles
Europe needs to take a hard look at what worked and what did not work in Afghanistan. Only then can it gradually and realistically build up its own capacities, rather than aim for grandiose schemes that lack public support.
ECFR’s Janka Oertel and Andrew Small discuss China’s attitude towards the NATO withdrawal from Afghanistan
Should peace talks succeed, Europeans and other international partners will need to demonstrate staying power in times of peace as well as war
China’s priorities are shifting towards the containment of security threats in its region, and Europe should capitalise on this trend
To stem the influx of Afghan refugees, Europe needs to turn to Asian partners, working not only with Kabul but with its neighbours
Before withdrawing alongside the US by the end of 2016, Europeans should explore whether and how far China's recent involvement in Afghanistan can complement European efforts.
Waging even one war and winning it is complicated enough. Not to mention waging three different wars and winning them. This is what faces the international forces in Afghanistan. (In English and Spanish)
If the EU wants to be a credible promoter of democracy, it needs to highlight the achievement of holding elections in Afghanistan, rather than dwell too long on the undoubted imperfections. Many Afghans are taking part in the elections despite the danger of violence and concerns about corruption, and the polls are not just being imposed by the outside world.
The Afghan experience will leave Europe?s armed forces drained and in search of a new purpose. Insufficient political will and empty state coffers will hamper rejuvenation