If the European Union’s new recovery programme succeeds, it may ultimately pave the way for the establishment of a fiscal union. But, if the EU funds fail to deliver on the plan’s stated goals, federal aspirations will be dashed for a generation.
Perpetual bonds are the best – and, perhaps, only – way to raise the one or two trillion euros that the European Union needs to fight the coronavirus and climate change
Jakie będzie dziedzictwo kryzysu koronowirusa? Czy Unia stoi przed kolejnym ważnym krokiem w integracji? W jaki sposób podjęte w ostatnim czasie decyzje wpływają na pozycję UE w świecie?
What does the corona crisis mean for economic coercion?
Berlin has quietly made concessions to new calls for greater solidarity. But back home this consensus may not last forever.
ECFR’s national offices discuss the emerging divisions between EU member states on the economic response to covid-19
Internationalising the euro is no longer the taboo it once was in Germany. Quietly, but indisputably, views in Berlin are starting to shift.
Sanctions for ‘misappropriation’ have proved their worth in forging ties with new leaders in Tunisia, Egypt, and Ukraine. But it is time to strengthen them
Giving up sovereignty at the national level seems the only way to retain some kind of European sovereignty, writes Sebastian Dullien in his farewell commentary for ECFR
Europe urgently needs to get its house in order on money laundering – and win voters’ trust back in the process