ECFR Council

Afghanistan: How it could have been different

Nothing was inevitable about the Taliban reconquering of Afghanistan. But in the end the US lost what minimal strategic patience it had

Three lessons for Europe from the fall of Afghanistan

Europe needs to take a hard look at what worked and what did not work in Afghanistan. Only then can it gradually and realistically build up its own capacities, rather than aim for grandiose schemes that lack public support

Four ways Europeans can help refocus NATO

The EU and its member states have a vital role to play in reforming NATO – cooperation rather than competition will be key to making this a success

Why Europe needs a Strategic GPS

In addition to a Strategic Compass that sets its direction of travel, the EU also needs a ‘GPS’ to help it determine its location and speed