This open letter is part of ESI’s Schengen White List Project
We welcome the recent European Commission proposal on
visa liberalisation in the Western Balkans. It is an important step forward in
a process that will allow people from the Western Balkans, like other
Europeans, to travel freely around Europe.
We appreciate the fact that the visa liberalisation
process is based on objective benchmarks. Governments in the region have a duty
to implement wide-ranging reforms to enhance the EU’s security and allay the
concerns of EU citizens. The countries of the Western Balkans have been asked
to improve control of their borders, introduce forgery-proof biometric
passports, and put in place concrete strategies to combat organised crime,
corruption and illegal migration.
Now the European Commission has found that three
countries – Macedonia, Serbia and Montenegro – have largely met these
conditions. We are glad that the European Commission is in a position to
propose visa-free travel for them. This shows that the process works.
We also hope that the authorities in Albania and
Bosnia-Herzegovina will soon fulfil the remaining criteria and gain visa-free
access to the Schengen zone before the end of 2010. We welcome the fact that
the European Commission is specifying in detail which conditions still have to
be met by both countries, ensuring a rigorous and transparent procedure.
However, we are disturbed by the fact that Kosovo has
been left out of this process, a blanket visa requirement having been proposed
for all of its residents, including those with Serbian citizenship – this,
without any mention of a process that could possibly lead to this requirement
We know that EU member states currently disagree on
the question of Kosovo’s independence. However, all member states should agree
that leaving Kosovo residents of all ethnicities trapped in a visa ghetto would
be a serious problem – not only for Kosovo, but also for the entire Western
Balkans and the EU’ s interests in the region.
We are convinced that it is in the EU’s interest to
encourage the same reforms in Kosovo as have already taken place in Macedonia and Montenegro. To do this, the EU
should use the considerable human and financial resources it already deploys in
Bearing this in mind, we call on all EU member states
– whatever their view on the status of Kosovo – to consider two changes to the
First, Kosovo should also receive a visa roadmap. It
must be given the opportunity to implement the same far-reaching reforms that
the other five Balkan countries have set out to implement and to thus
contribute to its own security, as well as to that of the entire region and the
whole EU. Once Kosovo meets these conditions, the visa requirement should be
If Kosovo can be placed on the visa “black list”
without an EU consensus on its status, then it can also be placed on the “white
list” once it meets the necessary technical requirements. The visa liberalisation
process should be considered status neutral by the EU.
Second, there should be no discrimination against
Kosovo residents. In line with the Commission’s proposal, the 3.5 million Serbs
living outside Serbia,
including the Serbs of Bosnia, will be eligible to receive Serbian passports
allowing visa-free travel within the EU. The residents of Kosovo, meanwhile,
will not. We disagree with such thinking. It will have the unintended
consequence of encouraging Kosovo Serbs (and Kosovo Bosniaks) to relocate and
take up residence outside of Kosovo – in plain contradiction to the EU’s stated
objective of a multiethnic Kosovo.
For years, the countries of the Western Balkans have
been waiting for visa-free travel. In the region’s relationship with the EU,
few issues have been as important. The EU has been on target with its policy of
roadmap conditionality and strict but fair evaluations. In the interests of
European – and Balkan – security, it must build on this success.
Giuliano Amato, chairman of the Schengen White List Project Advisory
Board, former Italian prime minister and interior minister
Otto Schily, former interior minister of Germany, member
of the German Bundestag
Radmila Sekerinska, chairperson of the National Council for
European Integration of Macedonia, former deputy prime minister of Macedonia
Misha Glenny, author of “McMafia: Crime without
Frontiers” and several books on the Balkans
Ivan Krastev, chairman of the Centre for Liberal Strategies, Sofia
Jordi Vaquer, director of the Centre for International Relations
and Development Studies (CIDOB), Barcelona
Gerald Knaus, chairman of the European Stability Initiative (ESI), Istanbul
Mark Leonard, executive director of the European Council on Foreign
ESI is grateful to the Robert Bosch Stiftung for
supporting the Schengen White List Project – www.esiweb.org/whitelistproject
The European Council on Foreign Relations does not take collective positions. ECFR publications only represent the views of its individual authors.